Introduction and brief review
Grammar schools are government-funded secondary schools in the state that select pupils based on academic ability at the age of 11, so they are referred to as ‘’11 plus’’. There are about 163 grammar schools in England, out of some 3,000 state secondaries, and a further 69 grammar schools in Northern Ireland.
Concept of grammar schools dated back to 16th centaury but modern grammar school concept emerged through Education act of 1944, after this act secondary education was free after the age of 14. In 1965, as per Government order grammar schools were phase out and replaced with a new system of comprehensive schools which admit pupils of all abilities. Most grammar schools were phase out, some became comprehensive and some converted into private schools but many were allowed to maintain their status and still exist today. Grammar schools are still available in some but not in all parts of England. Kent, Lincolnshire, Essex and Buckinghamshire are well known for supporting grammar school system.
In 1998 Tony Blair government banned the creation of new grammar schools. There have been no new grammar schools for more than 50 years and existing ones are allowed to expand.
PROS of grammar schools
High Achievers: Most of the high achiever across the country has been the product of a grammar school education system
Excellent academic results: Due to academic based selection pupils of grammar schools get great academic results. According to National Grammar Schools association, in 2006; 164 grammar schools of England produced more than half of the total A grades in A levels as compared to 2000 comprehensive schools. Healthy Academic environment: Due to healthy academic environment children are less likely to be bullied for hard work at school
CONS of grammar schools
Disputability of 11 plus exam: Many people disagree with the selection principle at the age of 11 as many children are not ready at this age and are still developing cognitive skills and failure in some children have long term psychological effects.
Classism: It is claimed due to tutoring fee wealthier children have a better chance to get into grammar schools and causing classism and division in society
Introduction and a brief review
Public Schools are also called independent schools in the United Kingdom, one of a relatively small group of institutions providing education to secondary level students for a fee and independent of the state system with respect to endowment and administration. The term “public” should not be misunderstood that these are public sector schools; they are in fact private sector. The term public used to indicate that access to these intuitions was not restricted on the basis of religion, residence, or occupation and was subject to public management in contrast to private schools which were run for the personal profit of proprietors.
From the 16th century onward boys boarding schools were established for public use. Initially, most public schools were all for boys and require full boarding. However, now public schools allow all-day pupils and have become partially or fully coeducational. Up to World War II, the role of public schools was to prepare pupils for the gentlemanly elite. After the Clarendon Commission reported in 1864, the Public Schools Act 1868 gave the following seven schools independence from direct jurisdiction or responsibility of the Crown, the established church, or the government: Charterhouse, Eton College, Harrow School, Rugby School, Shrewsbury School, Westminster School, and Winchester College. Henceforth each of these schools was to be managed by a board of governors.
PROS of Public Schools
Academic diversity: Greater range of qualifications available in public schools provides better chances for pupils to demonstrate their potential to the full level.
The satisfactory student to teacher ratio: Small teaching group is a significant factor in academic success. In most, public schools smaller class sizes are a distinctive factor with the average being 11 pupils per teacher as compared with 17 pupils per teacher in state schools.
Academically diverse candidates: Public schools have continued to dominate entry to the leading universities and provide a fair share of the candidates in shortage subjects, such as languages and physics.
CONS of public schools
High expenditures: Schools’ higher fees are a much bigger burden on the family after years of inflation.
Scarcity of Funds: As most public schools are run by private organizations so there is no major financial support from the government and despite vast applications sometimes there is a scarcity of funds for different advanced projects.